Martin Heidegger: An object's function is defined by the space around it. Therefore the space around any object, be it art, film or photography is important.
Pathetic Fallacy (in film): When nature expresses the emotion/feeling of the human beings in a scene. e.g. when the sun conveys the mood of happiness and warmth or when a thunderstorm symbolises violence/anger/dark forces.
Incongruous juxtaposition: Two clashing objects/ideas/themes/words placed side by side. This usually emphasises the contrast between the two. E.g. putting a kid wearing ragged clothes next to a father in a suit: